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ICSE BIOLOGY THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM NOTES

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Tanay Nayak
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~1~ DishaEducentre Exhaustive Notes 6. The Circulatory System THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ~ Part A: Body Fluids ~ I. Definitions and Explanations The study of blood is called as haematology. When blood circulates in a closed manner through blood vessels, then it is called as closed vascular system. Example: in chordates. Fluids of the human body that remain located in particular organs and do 3. not circulate are called as non-circulating fluids. Example: aqueous humour, vitreous humour, synovial fluid. Blood is a bright red viscous fluid that flows through all the vessels of the 4. Blood human body except the lymph vessels. It constitutes around 8% of the total body mass. The fluid component of blood, which constitutes around 55-60% of its total 5. Plasma volume is called plasma. 6. Erythrocytes a.k.a. Erythrocytes are nucleated, biconcave disc shaped bodies present in the blood. They contain haemoglobin and are useful in carrying oxygen and Red Blood carbon dioxide to their respective destinations in the body. Corpuscles Leucocytes are non-nucleated, amoeboid (irregularly shaped) bodies present 7. Leucocytes a.k.a. in the blood. They can move by developing processes called pseudopodia. White Blood They are responsible in protection of body from infections. Corpuscles Haemoglobin is an iron-protein complex that is found in erythrocytes. The 8. Haemoglobin iron component is called haemin and the protein component is called globin. It combines with oxygen and carbon dioxide and carries them to their responsible destinations. The process of formation of the red blood corpuscles from the bone marrow 9. Erythropoiesis of long bones such as the femur and the humerus is known as erythropoiesis. The process of formation of the white blood corpuscles is known as 10. Leucopoiesis leucopoiesis. Thrombocytes or blood platelets are minute oval or round structures that are 11. Thrombocytes non-nucleated, which are present in the blood. They are responsible for a.k.a. Blood blood clotting. Platelets Megakaryocytes are large cells in the red bone marrow where thrombocytes 12. Megakaryocytes are produced. Thrombokinase is a chemical substance released by thrombocytes by self13. Thrombokinase disintegration. The chemical initiates the process of blood clotting. It is a.k.a. called as Factor X or Stuart Factor in recent times. Thromboplastin The process in which leucocytes and particularly the neutrophils engulf 14. Phagocytosis particle-like solid substances, especially bacteria, is known as phagocytosis. The reaction of tissues to injury and to localised invasion of germs is known 15. Inflammation as inflammation. An inflamed region will show local heat, redness, swelling and pain, etc. The movement of the leucocytes (mainly the monocytes and neutrophils) 16. Diapedesis through the walls of the blood vessels is known as diapedesis. Lymphocytes are agranularleucocytes which produce antibodies to kill and 17. Lymphocytes neutralise germs and improve the body s immunity. 1. 2. Haematology Closed Vascular System Non-circulating Fluids Notes Prepared by Neil Valentine D Silva

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Additional Info : ICSE Biology Notes by Bhomik Acharya (bhomik1018)
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