X PRACTICE PAPER TERM 2 SECTION A Reading [10 marks] Question 1. Read the passage given below. Call it a blessing or a curse of Mother Nature, we have to breathe in over 10,000 litres of air in a day (more than four million litres in a year) to remain alive. By making it essential for life, God wanted us to keep the air we breathe clean. Everyone can see the food that is not clean and perhaps refrain from eating it, but one cannot stop breathing even if one can feel the air to be polluted. 5. Several harmful and noxious substances can contaminate the air we breathe. Generally, much is said and written about outdoor air pollution, most of which is due to vehicular and industrial exhausts. Given the fact that most of us spend most of our time indoors, it is most important to recognise that the air we breathe in at home or in offices can be polluted. It can be a cause of ill-health. Air pollutants that are generally present in very low concentrations 10. can assume significance in closed ill- ventilated places. .The indoor air pollution can lead to allergic reactions and cause irritation to the skin, the eyes and the nose. But as is logical to assume, the brunt of insult by pollutants is borne by the lungs. It can lead to the development of fresh breathing problems, especially in those who have allergic tendencies, or it can worsen the existing respiratory illnesses like asthma and bronchitis. There can be several sources of indoor air pollution. Tobacco smoke is one of the most 15. important air pollutants in closed places. Passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) pollution can lead to all the harmful effects of tobacco smoking seen in the smokers in their non-smoking companions. ETS as a health hazard has been unequivocally proven and is also getting social recognition now. One can occasionally see signs displaying the all-important message: Your smoking is injurious to my health in offices and homes. 20. The children of smoking parents are among the worst affected persons. The exposure of young children to ETS leads to increased respiratory problems and hospital admissions as compared to non-exposed children. Several studies, including those done at the PGI, have shown an increased risk of lung cancer among women exposed to passive smoking. ETS also worsens the existing lung diseases like asthma and bronchitis. It may be responsible for the development of asthma in children. 25. The gases are very toxic in high concentrations as may be encountered during industrial accidents, but even in very minimal amounts, as may be prevalent in homes and offices, they can cause irritation to the skin or the eyes, rashes, headache, dizziness and nausea. Improving the ventilation is an important preventive measure, besides trying to eliminate the source that may not be always feasible. Other indoor pollutants are toxic chemicals like cleansing agents, 30.pesticides, paints, solvents and inferior quality personal-care products, especially aerosols. Very old crumbling pipes, boilers, insulation or false roofing can also be important sources. Asbestos is a hazardous product that can cause cancer in humans. It is important to realise that the air we breathe at home may not be clean always and we must try to eliminate the source of pollution. We should give due consideration to ventilation.. Based on your understanding of the passage, answer ANY FIVE questions from the six given below. (1 5) (A) What does the writer mean by using the quote Your smoking is injurious to my health ? (1) (B) Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with a word that means the same from lines 15-20. Shalini, without a doubt, is a Manchester City fan. She even got the stadium tickets to go watch the live series. (1) (C) State a reason for air being contaminated with noxious substances. (1) (D) Why are the children of smoking parents more prone to hospital admissions ? (1) (E) List one reason as to why we should give due consideration to ventilation ? (1) (F) How does the writer justify emphasizing ventilation over eliminating the source of pollutant? (1) Question 2 Read the following excerpt from a case study titled what is a healthy diet? What is a healthy diet? Many clinicians find themselves at a loss to answer this common question from patients. The difficulty of offering a simple answer is understandable. The overwhelming volume of data
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