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Chapter 4.12 - Applications of Non-Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources

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Selected questions Chapter 4.12: Application of Non-Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources Short type questions 1. What do you mean by solar window? Ans. The period four to five hours in late morning and early afternoon (between 9 am. To 3 p.m.) is commonly called the solar window. During this time, 80% of the total collectable energy for the day falls on a solar collector. 2. How photovoltaic (PV) modules are rated and what is the efficiency of commercial solar cell? Ans. PV modules are rated by their peak watt output at solar noon on a clear day. A typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%. 3. Using biomass as fuel, how much carbon dioxide will be released? Ans. Biomass does not add carbon-dioxide to the atmosphere as it absorbs the same amount of carbon is growing as it releases when consumed as fuel. 4. Write short note on biogas? Ans. Biogas is a clean and efficient fuel, generated from cow-dung, human waste or any kind of biological materials derived through anaerobic fermentation process. The biogas consists of 60% methane with rest mainly carbon-di-oxide. Biogas is a safe fuel for cooking and lighting. By-product is usable as high grade manure. 5. Mention various forms of renewable energy? Ans. Various forms of renewable energy are i) Solar energy, ii) Wind energy, iii) Bio energy, iv) Hydro energy, v) Geothermal energy and vi) Wave and tidal energy 6. What is the approximate quantum of solar energy (in kWh/m2) received by India? Ans. India receives solar energy in the range of 5 to 7 kWh/m2 for 300 to 330 days in a year. This energy is sufficient to set up 20 MW solar power plant per square kilometre land area. 7. What is the average wind speed (Km/h) considered as Good for operation of wind mill. Ans. Wind speed of 25 Kmh or 15.5 Mph is considered to be Good for power generation. 8. What is the Capacity Factor (CF) of wind Turbine? Ans. The Capacity Factor (CF) is simply the wind turbine's actual energy output for the year divided by the energy output if the machine is operated at its rated power output for the entire year . A reasonable capacity factor would be 0.25 to 0.30 and a very good capacity factor would be around 0.40. 9. What is methane content (in %) of bio gas. Ans. The biogas consists of 60% methane with rest mainly carbon-di-oxide. Biogas is a safe fuel for 4.12 - Non conventional (table format) 71

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